When you approach the scene of an accident or emergency, follow the “DRABC” plan.
Assess the possible danger to you, to others, and to the casualty/victim.
Gently shake the casualty and ask, ‘Can you hear me?’ ‘What is your name?’
If the casualty is conscious, check for and manage bleeding and other injuries.
If the casualty is unconscious, he or she should be turned on their side to clear and open the airway.
To turn an unconscious casualty on to their side:
Kneel beside the casualty
Place the casualty’s arm that is farther away at a right angle to their body.
Place the nearer arm across the chest.
Bend the nearer knee up.
Roll the casualty away from you. Support the casualty in this position until airway and breathing have been checked.
With the casualty supported on one side, tilt their head backwards and slightly down.
Open their mouth and clear any foreign object. Only remove dentures if loose or broken.
Open the airway.
Place one hand on the casualty’s forehead.
Support their chin with your other hand.
Gently tilt their head backwards.
Lift the jaw forward and open the casualty’s mouth slightly.
– Look for their chest rising and falling
– Listen for the sound of breathing.
– Feel with your cheek to detect breath.
If the casualty is breathing, ensure that he/she is in a stable side position.
If the casualty is not breathing, turn onto their back and commence resuscitation, giving 5 full breaths in 10 seconds.
How to perform mouth to mouth resuscitation:
– Kneel beside the casualty.
-Keep the casualty’s head tilted back.
-Pinch the nostrils with your fingers
-Lift the jaw forward with your other hand.
-Take a deep breath and open your mouth wide.
-Place your mouth firmly over the casualty’s mouth making an airtight seal.
-Breath into the casualty’s mouth.
-Remove your mouth and turn your head to observe the chest fall and listen or feel for exhaled air.
-If the chest does not rise and fall, check head tilt position first, then check for a cleared airway.
-Give 5 full breaths in 10 seconds then check the neck pulse for 5 seconds. If pulse is present, continue at 15 breaths per minute.
-If pulse is not present, commence CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)
-Check breathing and the pulse after 1 minute, then after every 2 minutes. If the pulse returns, continue mouth to mouth. If breathing returns turn the casualty to a stable side position.
– Seek medical aid.